All EyeLink Publications
All 10,000+ peer-reviewed EyeLink research publications up until 2021 (with some early 2022s) are listed below by year. You can search the publications library using keywords such as Visual Search, Smooth Pursuit, Parkinson’s, etc. You can also search for individual author names. Eye-tracking studies grouped by research area can be found on the solutions pages. If we missed any EyeLink eye-tracking papers, please email us!
Jeroen B. J. Smeets; Ignace T. C. Hooge
Nature of variability in saccades Journal Article
In: Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 12–20, 2003.
We studied the variability in saccades by comparing the peak velocities of saccades with the same target amplitude made with different actual amplitudes. We tested three hypotheses: the pulse-height noise hypothesis (peak velocity and amplitude vary proportionally), the localization noise hypothesis (variability in amplitude and peak velocity lie along the main sequence), and the independent noise hypothesis (variability in amplitude and peak velocity are independent). We measured eye orientation in two experiments by a scleral coil and a video system. Surprisingly, the main source of variability of saccades depended on the measurement system used. A combination of localization noise and independent noise best describes the data obtained by the video system. The independent noise (e.g., measurement inaccuracy) was the main source of variability. For the scleral coils, the variability was considerably larger than for the less accurate video system. The pulse-height noise hypothesis best describes this additional variability. Therefore we conclude that pulse-height noise is the main source of variability in saccades measured with scleral coils. We discuss the influence of scleral coils on saccade generation and suggest that a change in motor strategy due to the discomfort of wearing the coils might be the cause of the increased variability.
Jörg Sommerhalder; Evelyne Oueghlani; Marc Bagnoud; Ute Leonards; Avinoam B. Safran; Marco Pelizzone
In: Vision Research, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 269–283, 2003.
Simulations of artificial vision were performed to assess "minimum requirements for useful artificial vision". Retinal prostheses will be implanted at a fixed (and probably eccentric) location of the retina. To mimic this condition on normal observers, we projected stimuli of various sizes and content on a defined stabilised area of the visual field. In experiment 1, we asked subjects to read isolated 4-letter words presented at various degrees of pixelisation and at various eccentricities. Reading performance dropped abruptly when the number of pixels was reduced below a certain threshold. For central reading, a viewing area containing about 300 pixels was necessary for close to perfect reading (>90% correctly read words). At eccentricities beyond 10°, close to perfect reading was never achieved even if more than 300 pixels were used. A control experiment using isolated letter recognition in the same conditions suggested that lower reading performance at high eccentricity was in part due to the "crowding effect". In experiment 2, we investigated whether the task of eccentric reading under such specific conditions could be improved by training. Two subjects, naive to this task, were trained to read pixelised 4-letter words presented at 15° eccentricity. Reading performance of both subjects increased impressively throughout the experiment. Low initial reading scores (range 6%-23% correct) improved impressively (range 64%-85% correct) after about one month of training (about 1 h/day). Control tests demonstrated that the learning process consisted essentially in an adaptation to use an eccentric area of the retina for reading. These results indicate that functional retinal implants consisting of more than 300 stimulation contacts will be needed. They might successfully restore some reading abilities in blind patients, even if they have to be placed outside the foveal area. Reaching optimal performance may, however, require a significant adaptation process.
Visual field anisotropy revealed by perceptual filling-in Journal Article
In: Vision Research, vol. 43, no. 19, pp. 2029–2038, 2003.
Four experiments were performed to investigate how the time required for perceptual filling-in varies with the position of the target in the visual field. Conventional studies have revealed that filling-in is facilitated by a target with greater eccentricity, while no systematic studies have examined the effect of polar angle. Experiment 1 examined the effect of polar angle when the target and surround differed in luminance. Filling-in was facilitated as the target position changed from the horizontal to the vertical meridian. This dependency was more prominent in the upper field than in the lower, although no asymmetry was found between the left and right visual fields. These features were observed in both monocular and binocular viewing. These results were replicated in a modified stimulus configuration, in which the surround was a circular region concentric with the target (Experiment 2). Moreover, it was confirmed that the asymmetry was not due to fluctuation in the retinal image (i.e., eye movement) (Experiment 3). Finally, Experiment 4 examined whether this anisotropy was observed when two differently oriented gratings were presented in the target and surround regions. Again, filling-in was facilitated for a target close to the vertical meridian, irrespective of the relationship between the target and surround orientations. The underlying mechanism of this anisotropy is discussed from the viewpoints of cortical magnification and neural connections in the visual cortex.
Anne Pier Salverda; Delphine Dahan; James M. McQueen
In: Cognition, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 51–89, 2003.
Participants' eye movements were monitored as they heard sentences and saw four pictured objects on a computer screen. Participants were instructed to click on the object mentioned in the sentence. There were more transitory fixations to pictures representing monosyllabic words (e.g. ham) when the first syllable of the target word (e.g. hamster) had been replaced by a recording of the monosyllabic word than when it came from a different recording of the target word. This demonstrates that a phonemically identical sequence can contain cues that modulate its lexical interpretation. This effect was governed by the duration of the sequence, rather than by its origin (i.e. which type of word it came from). The longer the sequence, the more monosyllabic-word interpretations it generated. We argue that cues to lexical-embedding disambiguation, such as segmental lengthening, result from the realization of a prosodic boundary that often but not always follows monosyllabic words, and that lexical candidates whose word boundaries are aligned with prosodic boundaries are favored in the word-recognition process.
Andreas Schiegg; Heiner Deubel; Werner X. Schneider
Attentional selection during preparation of prehension movements Journal Article
In: Visual Cognition, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 409–431, 2003.
In two experiments coupling between dorsal attentional selection for action and ventral attentional selection for perception during preparation of prehension movements was examined. In a dual-task paradigm subjects had to grasp an "X"-shaped object with either the left or the right hand's thumb and index finger. Simultaneously a discrimination task was used to measure visual attention prior to the execution of the prehension movements: Mask items transiently changed into distractors or discrimination targets. There was exactly one discrimination target per trial, which appeared at one of the four branch ends of the object. In Experiment 1 target position varied randomly while in Experiment 2 it was constant and known to subjects in each block of trials. In both experiments discrimination performance was significantly better for discrimination target positions at to-be-grasped branch ends than for not-to-be-grasped branch ends. We conclude that during preparation of prehension movements visual attention is largely confined to those parts of an object that will be grasped.
Jiye Shen; Eyal M. Reingold; Marc Pomplun
In: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 76–96, 2003.
The distractor-ratio effect refers to the finding that search performance in a conjunctive visual search task depends on the relative frequency of two types or subsets of distractors when the total number of items in a display is fixed. Previously, Shen, Reingold, and Pomplun (2000) examined participants' patterns of eye movements in a distractor-ratio paradigm and demonstrated that on any given trial saccadic endpoints were biased towards the smaller subset of distractors and participants flexibly switched between different subsets across trials. The current study explored the boundary conditions of this tendency to flexibly search through a smaller subset of distractors by examining the influence of several manipulations known to modulate search efficiency, including stimulus discriminability (Experiment 1), within-dimension versus cross-dimension conjunction search and distractor heterogeneity (Experiment 2). The results indicated that the flexibility of visual guidance and saccadic bias exemplified by the distractor-ratio effect is a robust phenomenon that mediates search efficiency by adapting to changes in the relative informativeness of stimulus dimensions and features.
Shinsuke Shimojo; Claudiu Simion; Eiko Shimojo; Christian Scheier
Gaze bias both reflects and influences preference Journal Article
In: Nature Neuroscience, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1317–1322, 2003.
Emotions operate along the dimension of approach and aversion, and it is reasonable to assume that orienting behavior is intrinsically linked to emotionally involved processes such as preference decisions. Here we describe a gaze 'cascade effect' that was present when human observers were shown pairs of human faces and instructed to decide which face was more attractive. Their gaze was initially distributed evenly between the two stimuli, but then gradually shifted toward the face that they eventually chose. Gaze bias was significantly weaker in a face shape discrimination task. In a second series of experiments, manipulation of gaze duration, but not exposure duration alone, biased observers' preference decisions. We thus conclude that gaze is actively involved in preference formation. The gaze cascade effect was also present when participants compared abstract, unfamiliar shapes for attractiveness, suggesting that orienting and preference for objects in general are intrinsically linked in a positive feedback loop leading to the conscious choice.
Valérie Gaveau; Olivier Martin; Claude Prablanc; Denis Pélisson; Christian Urquizar; Michel Desmurget
In: Neuroreport, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 875–878, 2003.
A saccade is a rapid shift of the position of the eyes (<100ms). Saccades are generally considered too quick to be inpoundsuenced by retinal signals.To address this idea, we displaced the visual target of a rightward horizontal saccade at eye movement onset (when there is suppression of conscious perception).To prevent adaptive and learning e¡ects to occur, jump saccadeswere always followed by a random series of 10 no-jump saccades. Results indicated that the target jump influenced significantly the amplitude and the peak velocity of the ongoing saccade (opposite e¡ects were found for rightward and leftward jumps). Changes in saccade kinematics occurred as early as 50ms after the target jump. These results show that retinal information is processed quickly during eye movements, presumably through sub-cortical pathways.
Elizabeth Gilman; Geoffrey Underwood
In: Visual Cognition, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 201–232, 2003.
An experiment is reported, which was designed to determine how the perceptual span of pianists varies with developing skill and cognitive load. Eye-movements were recorded as musical phrases were presented through a gaze-contingent window, which contained one beat, two beats, or four beats. In a control condition, the music was presented without a window. The pianists were required to perform three tasks of varying cognitive load: An error-detection task (low load); a sight- reading task (medium load); and a transposition task (high load). Measures taken comprised fixation duration, fixation frequency, saccade length, fixation locations, performance duration, note duration, position of first error, number of errors, and eye±hand span. The results indicate that good and poor sight-readers do not differ in terms of perceptual span. However, good sight-readers were found to have larger eye±hand spans. Furthermore, the results show that increasing cognitive load decreases eye±hand span, but has little effect on perceptual span.
Richard Godijn; Jan Theeuwes
In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 882–896, 2003.
In a series of 5 experiments, the allocation of attention prior to the execution of saccade sequences was examined by using a dual-task paradigm. In the primary task, participants were required to execute a sequence of 2 endogenous saccades. The secondary task was a forced-choice letter identification task. During the programming of the saccade sequences, letters were briefly presented at the saccade goals and at no-saccade locations. The results showed that performance was better for letters presented at any of the saccade goals than for letters presented at any of the no-saccade locations. The results support a spatial model that assumes that prior to the execution of a saccade sequence, attention is allocated in parallel to all saccade goals.
Katia Duscherer; Daniel Holender
In: Psychologica Belgica, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 153–179, 2003.
We explore under which conditions words flanking a centrally presented digit in the prime display can elicit semantic priming on the lexical decision to a subsequent letter string appearing at fixation about 1 sec later. No significant priming is found when the prime display requires an immediate odd/even classification of a digit (Experiment 1), a delayed recall of a digit (Experiment 3), or the detection of an infrequent change from the digit 4 to the letter A (Experiment 4). It is only in Experiment 2, in which nothing is presented at fixation during the prime display in positive lexical decision trials, that a positive semantic priming effect is found. These results are discussed in the framework of quantitative and qualitative limitations to processing automaticity.
Ralf Engbert; Reinhold Kliegl
Microsaccades uncover the orientation of covert attention Journal Article
In: Vision Research, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1035–1045, 2003.
Fixational eye movements are subdivided into tremor, drift, and microsaccades. All three types of miniature eye movements generate small random displacements of the retinal image when viewing a stationary scene. Here we investigate the modulation of microsaccades by shifts of covert attention in a classical spatial cueing paradigm. First, we replicate the suppression of microsaccades with a minimum rate about 150 ms after cue onset. Second, as a new finding we observe microsaccadic enhancement with a maximum rate about 350 ms after presentation of the cue. Third, we find a modulation of the orientation towards the cue direction. These multiple influences of visual attention on microsaccades accentuate their role for visual information processing. Furthermore, our results suggest that microsaccades can be used to map the orientation of visual attention in psychophysical experiments.
Elliot M. Frohman; Padraig O'Suilleabhain; Richard B. Dewey; Teresa C. Frohman; Phillip D. Kramer
A new measure of dysconjugacy in INO: The first-pass amplitude Journal Article
In: Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 210, no. 1-2, pp. 65–71, 2003.
Background: The ratios of abducting to adducting eye movements (versional dysconjugacy index, VDI) for saccadic velocity and acceleration have been useful measures by which to objectively characterize internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO). Amplitude measures of dysconjugacy have been less useful, given that many patients maintain the ability to ultimately reach a centrifugal fixation target and that traditional amplitude measures of VDI have focused on this 'final amplitude' (FA) position. Methods: We utilized infrared oculography to define a new amplitude measure of dysconjugacy in 42 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with INO. The first-pass amplitude (FPA)-VDI is the ratio of abduction/adduction eye movement amplitudes computed at the time when the abducting eye initially achieves the centrifugal horizontal fixation target. Results: FPA-VDI values were significantly more sensitive and specific than FA-VDI values in demonstrating dysconjugacy in INO, and there was a 14-fold increase in dysconjugacy as measured by FPA-VDI Z-scores when compared to FA-VDI Z-scores. Conclusion: Consideration of velocity (pulse) and amplitude (step) components of dysconjugacy in patients with INO can provide a greater understanding of the dynamic aspects of this syndrome. We propose to characterize the relationship between the pathophysiology of INO and neuroradiologic measures of tissue injury in MS.
Teresa C. Frohman; Elliot M. Frohman; Padraig O'Suilleabhain; A. R. Salter; Richard B. Dewey; N. Hogan; S. Galetta; A. G. Lee; D. Straumann; J. Noseworthy; D. Zee; J. Corbett; J. Corboy; V. M. Rivera; Phillip D. Kramer
In: Neurology, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 848–850, 2003.
The authors compared the accuracy of clinical detection (by 279 physician observers) of internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO) with that of quantitative infrared oculography. For the patients with mild adduction slowing, INO was not identified by 71%. Intermediate dysconjugacy was not detected by 25% of the evaluators. In the most severe cases, INO was not identified by only 6%. Oculographic techniques significantly enhance the precision of INO detection compared to the clinical exam.
Adele Diederich; Hans Colonius; Daniela Bockhorst; Sandra Tabeling
Visual-tactile spatial interaction in saccade generation Journal Article
In: Experimental Brain Research, vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 328–337, 2003.
Saccadic reaction times to visual targets tend to be faster when non-visual stimuli are presented in close temporal or spatial proximity even if subjects are instructed to ignore the accessory input. The effect tends to decrease with increasing spatial distance between the stimuli. Multisensory interaction effects measured in neural structures involved in saccade generation have demonstrated a similar spatial dependence. The present study investigated visual-tactile interaction effects on saccadic reaction time using a focused attention paradigm. Compared to unimodal visual targets saccadic reaction time to bimodal stimuli was reduced by up to 30 ms. The effect was larger for ipsi- than for contralateral presentations, and it increased with the eccentricity of the visual target. The results are consistent with attributing part of the facilitation to a multisensory effect of bimodal neurons with overlapping visual and tactile receptive field structures in the deep layers of the superior colliculus.
Hendrik Chris Dijkerman; Robert D. McIntosh; David Milner; Yves Rossetti; Caroline Tilikete; Richard C. Roberts
In: Experimental Brain Research, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 220–230, 2003.
When asked to compare two lateralized shapes for horizontal size, neglect patients often indicate the left stimulus to be smaller. Gainotti and Tiacci (1971) hypothesized that this phenomenon might be related to a rightward bias in the patients' gaze. This study aimed to assess the relation between this size underestimation and oculomotor asymmetries. Eye movements were recorded while three neglect patients judged the horizontal extent of two rectangles. Two experimental manipulations were performed to increase the likelihood of symmetrical scanning of the stimulus display. The first manipulation entailed a sequential, rather than simultaneous presentation of the two rectangles. The second required adaptation to rightward displacing prisms, which is known to reduce many manifestations of neglect. All patients consistently underestimated the left rectangle, but the pattern of verbal responses and eye movements suggested different underlying causes. These include a distortion of space perception without ocular asymmetry, a failure to view the full leftward extent of the left stimulus, and a high-level response bias. Sequential presentation of the rectangles and prism adaptation reduced ocular asymmetries without affecting size underestimation. Overall, the results suggest that leftward size underestimation in neglect can arise for a number of different reasons. Incomplete leftward scanning may perhaps be sufficient to induce perceptual size distortion, but it is not a necessary prerequisite.
Thomas Wynn; Frederick Coolidge
The role of working memory in the evolution of managed foraging Journal Article
In: Before Farming, no. 2, pp. 1–16, 2003.
This article proposes that a relatively simple evolutionary development in human cognition enabled the develop- ment of managed foraging systems and, ultimately, agriculture. This development, an increase in the capacity of working memory, resulted in an enhancement of such specific cognitive abilities as response inhibition, response preparation, resistance to interference, and the ability to integrate action across space and time. All are required for modern managed foraging systems, including hunting and gathering and agriculture. Archaeological evidence provides strong evidence for managed foraging by the middle of the European Upper Palaeolithic and South African Later Stone Age, and independent evidence for enhanced working memory capacity slightly earlier. This fits the hypothesis that enhanced working memory capacity was a relatively recent development in human evolu- tion, and one that enabled not just managed foraging, but perhaps modern culture itself.
Johannes M. Zanker; Melanie Doyle; Robin Walker
Gaze stability of observers watching Op Art pictures Journal Article
In: Perception, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1037–1049, 2003.
It has been the matter of some debate why we can experience vivid dynamic illusions when looking at static pictures composed from simple black and white patterns. The impression of illusory motion is particularly strong when viewing some of the works of 'Op Artists, such as Bridget Riley's painting Fall. Explanations of the illusory motion have ranged from retinal to cortical mechanisms, and an important role has been attributed to eye movements. To assess the possible contribution of eye movements to the illusory-motion percept we studied the strength of the illusion under different viewing conditions, and analysed the gaze stability of observers viewing the Riley painting and control patterns that do not produce the illusion. Whereas the illusion was reduced, but not abolished, when watching the painting through a pinhole, which reduces the effects of accommodation, it was not perceived in flash afterimages, suggesting an important role for eye movements in generating the illusion for this image. Recordings of eye movements revealed an abundance of small involuntary saccades when looking at the Riley pattern, despite the fact that gaze was kept within the dedicated fixation region. The frequency and particular characteristics of these rapid eye movements can vary considerably between different observers, but, although there was a tendency for gaze stability to deteriorate while viewing a Riley painting, there was no significant difference in saccade frequency between the stimulus and control patterns. Theoretical considerations indicate that such small image displacements can generate patterns of motion signals in a motion-detector network, which may serve as a simple and sufficient, but not necessarily exclusive, explanation for the illusion. Why such image displacements lead to perceptual results with a group of Op Art and similar patterns, but remain invisible for other stimuli, is discussed.
Leonardo Chelazzi; Elisabeth Moores; Liana Laiti
In: Nature neuroscience, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 182–189, 2003.
According to some models of visual selective attention, objects in a scene activate corresponding neural representations, which compete for perceptual awareness and motor behavior. During a visual search for a target object, top-down control exerted by working memory representations of the target's defining properties resolves competition in favor of the target. These models, however, ignore the existence of associative links among object representations. Here we show that such associations can strongly influence deployment of attention in humans. In the context of visual search, objects associated with the target were both recalled more often and recognized more accurately than unrelated distractors. Notably, both target and associated objects competitively weakened recognition of unrelated distractors and slowed responses to a luminance probe. Moreover, in a speeded search protocol, associated objects rendered search both slower and less accurate. Finally, the first saccades after onset of the stimulus array were more often directed toward associated than control items.
Nicholas D. Cassavaugh; Arthur F. Kramer; David E. Irwin
In: Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 44–60, 2003.
We examined potential age-related differences in attentional and oculomotor capture by single and multiple abrupt onsets in a singleton search paradigm. 24 participants were instructed to move their eyes as quickly as possible to a color singleton target and to identify a small letter located inside it. Either single or dual onset task-irrelevant distractors were presented simultaneously with the color change that defined the target, or one onset distractor was presented prior to and another onset distractor was presented during the participant's initial eye movement away from fixation. Young and old adults misdirected their eyes to the single and dual onset task-irrelevant distractors, on an equivalent proportion of trials, relative to control trials. However, older adults' saccade latencies and RTs were influenced to a greater extent by onsets compared to younger adults'. These data are discussed in terms of age-related differences in attentional control and oculomotor capture.
David Crundall; Peter Chapman; Nicola Phelps; Geoffrey Underwood
In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 163–174, 2003.
How do police cope with the visual demands placed on them during pursuit driving? This study compared the hazard ratings, eye movements, and physiological responses of police drivers with novice and with age-matched control drivers while viewing video clips of driving taken from police vehicles. The clips included pursuits, emergency responses, and control drives. Although police drivers did not report more hazards than the other participants reported, they had an increased frequency of electrodermal responses while viewing dangerous clips and a greater visual sampling rate and spread of search. However, despite an overall police advantage in oculomotor and physiological measures, all drivers had a reduced spread of search in nighttime pursuits because of the focusing of overt attention.
Timothy Desmet; Edward Gibson
In: Journal of Memory and Language, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 353–374, 2003.
Gibson and Schütze (1999) showed that on-line disambiguation preferences do not always mirror corpus frequencies. When presented with a syntactic ambiguity involving the conjunction of a noun phrase to three possible attachment sites, participants were faster to read attachments to the first site than attachments to the second one, although the latter were shown to be more frequent in text corpora. In the present study, we investigated whether a particular feature in their items - disambiguation using the pronoun 'one'-could account for this discrepancy. The results of a corpus analysis and two on-line reading experiments showed that the presence of this pronoun is indeed responsible for the high attachment preference in the conjunction ambiguity. We conclude that for this syntactic ambiguity there is no discrepancy between on-line preferences and corpus frequencies. Consequently, there is no need to assume different processes underlying sentence comprehension and sentence production on the basis of the noun phrase conjunction ambiguity.
Heiner Deubel; Werner X. Schneider
In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1004, pp. 289–296, 2003.
Several studies have shown that during the preparation of a goal-directed movement, perceptual selection (i.e., visual attention) and action selection (the selection of the movement target) are closely coupled. Here, we study attentional selection in situations in which delayed saccadic eye movements and delayed manual movements are prepared. A dual-task paradigm was used which combined the movement preparation with a perceptual discrimination task. The results demonstrate a fundamental difference between the preparation of saccades and of manual reaching. For delayed saccades, attention is pinned to the saccade target until the onset of the response. This does not hold for manual reaching, however. Although fast reaching movements require attention, reaches delayed more than 300 ms after movement cue onset can be already performed "off-line"; that is, attention can be withdrawn from the movement target.
Avital Deutsch; Ram Frost; Sharon Pelleg; Alexander Pollatsek; Keith Rayner
In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 415–422, 2003.
Hebrew words are composed of two interwoven morphemes: a triconsonantal root and a word pattern.We examined the role of the root morpheme in word identificationby assessingthe benefit of presentation of a parafoveal previewword derived from the same root as a target word. Although the letter information of the preview was not consciously perceived, a preview of a word derived from the same root morpheme as the foveal target word facilitated eye-movement measures of first-pass reading (i.e., first fixation and gaze duration). These results are the first to demonstrate early morphological effects in the context of sentence reading in which no external task is imposed on the reader, and converge with previous findings of morphemic priming in Hebrew using the masked priming paradigm, and morphemic parafoveal preview benefit effects in a single-word identification task.
Michael Coesmans; Peter A. Sillevis Smitt; David J. Linden; Ryuichi Shigemoto; Tomoo Hirano; Yoshinori Yamakawa; Adriaan M. Alphen; Chongde Luo; Josef N. Geest; Johan M. Kros; Carlos A. Gaillard; Maarten A. Frens; Chris I. De Zeeuw
In: Annals of Neurology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 325–336, 2003.
Patients with Hodgkin's disease can develop paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia because of the generation of autoantibodies against mGluR1 (mGluR1-Abs). Yet, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying their motor coordination deficits remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that application of IgG purified from the patients' serum to cerebellar slices of mice acutely reduces the basal activity of Purkinje cells, whereas application to the flocculus of mice in vivo evokes acute disturbances in the performance of their compensatory eye movements. In addition, the mGluR1-Abs block induction of long-term depression in cultured mouse Purkinje cells, whereas the cerebellar motor learning behavior of the patients is affected in that they show impaired adaptation of their saccadic eye movements. Finally, postmortem analysis of the cerebellum of a paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia patient showed that the number of Purkinje cells was significantly reduced by approximately two thirds compared with three controls. We conclude that autoantibodies against mGluR1 can cause cerebellar motor coordination deficits caused by a combination of rapid effects on both acute and plastic responses of Purkinje cells and chronic degenerative effects.
Angela M. Colcombe; Arthur F. Kramer; David E. Irwin; Matthew S. Peterson; Stanley Colcombe; Sowon Hahn
In: Acta Psychologica, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 205–225, 2003.
The present experiment examined the degree to which experience with different stimulus characteristics affects attentional capture, particularly as related to aging. Participants were presented with onset target/color singleton distractor or color singleton target/onset distractor pairs across three experimental sessions. The target/distractor pairs were reversed in the second session such that the target in the first session became the distractor in the second and third sessions. For both young and old adults previous experience with color as a target defining feature influenced oculomotor capture with task-irrelevant color distractors. Experience with sudden onsets had the same effect for younger and older adults, although capture effects were substantially larger for onset than for color distractors. Experience-based capture effects diminished relatively rapidly after target and distractor-defining properties were reversed. The results are discussed in terms of top-down and stimulus-driven effects on age-related differences in attentional control. textcopyright2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Ervin Poljac; Albert V. Berg
Representation of heading direction in far and near head space Journal Article
In: Experimental Brain Research, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 501–513, 2003.
Manipulation of objects around the head requires an accurate and stable internal representation of their locations in space, also during movements such as that of the eye or head. For far space, the representation of visual stimuli for goal-directed arm movements relies on retinal updating, if eye movements are involved. Recent neurophysiological studies led us to infer that a transformation of visual space from retinocentric to a head-centric representation may be involved for visual objects in close proximity to the head. The first aim of this study was to investigate if there is indeed such a representation for remembered visual targets of goal-directed arm movements. Participants had to point toward an initially foveated central target after an intervening saccade. Participants made errors that reflect a bias in the visuomotor transformation that depends on eye displacement rather than any head-centred variable. The second issue addressed was if pointing toward the centre of a wide-field expanding motion pattern involves a retinal updating mechanism or a transformation to a head-centric map and if that process is distance dependent. The same pattern of pointing errors in relation to gaze displacement was found independent of depth. We conclude that for goal-directed arm movements, representation of the remembered visual targets is updated in a retinal frame, a mechanism that is actively used regardless of target distance, stimulus characteristics or the requirements of the task.
Marc Pomplun; Eyal M. Reingold; Jiye Shen
In: Cognitive Science, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 299–312, 2003.
The Area Activation Model (Pomplun, Reingold, Shen, & Williams, 2000) is a computational model predicting the statistical distribution of saccadic endpoints in visual search tasks. Its basic assumption is that saccades in visual search tend to foveate display areas that provide a maximum amount of task-relevant information for processing during the subsequent fixation. In the present study, a counterintuitive prediction by the model is empirically tested, namely that saccadic selectivity towards stimulus features depends on the spatial arrangement of search items. We find good correspondence between simulated and empirically observed selectivity patterns, providing strong support for the Area Activation Model.
Helena Ojanpää; Risto Näsänen
Utilisation of spatial frequency information in face search Journal Article
In: Vision Research, vol. 43, no. 24, pp. 2505–2515, 2003.
In previous studies the utilisation of spatial frequency information in face perception has been investigated by using static recognition tasks. In this study we used a visual search task, which requires eye movements and fast identification of previously learned facial photographs. Using Fourier phase randomisation, spatial information was selectively removed without changing the amplitude spectrum of the image. Fourier phase was randomised within one-octave wide bands of nine different centre spatial frequencies (2-32 c/face width, 0.63-10.1 c/deg). In a control condition no randomisation was used. All stimuli had similar contrast. Search times and eye movements during the search were measured. The removal of spatial information by phase randomisation at medium spatial frequencies resulted in a considerable increase of search times. In the main experiment the maximum of the search times occurred between 8 and 11 c/ face width. The number of eye fixations behaved similarly. In an additional experiment with a threefold viewing distance the search times increased and the maximum of the search times shifted slightly to lower object spatial frequencies (5.6-8 c/face width). This suggests that the band of spatial frequencies used in face search is not completely scale invariant. The results show that information most important to face search is located at a limited band of mid spatial frequencies. This is consistent with earlier studies, in which non-dynamical face recognition tasks and low-contrast stimuli have been used.
Helena Ojanpää; Risto Näsänen
In: Displays, vol. 24, no. 4-5, pp. 167–178, 2003.
For black-and-white alphanumeric information, the speed of visual perception decreases with decreasing contrast. We investigated the effect of luminance contrast on the speed of visual search and reading when characters and background differed also with respect to colour. The luminance contrast between background and characters was varied, while colour contrast was held nearly constant. Stimuli with moderate (green/grey) or high colour contrast (green/red or yellow/blue), and three character sizes (0.17, 0.37, and 1.26deg) were used. Eye movements were recorded during the visual search task. We found that the visual search times, number of eye fixations, and mean fixation durations increased strongly with decreasing luminance contrast despite the presence of colour contrast. The effects were largest for small characters (0.17deg), but occurred also for medium (0.37deg), and in some cases for large (1.26deg) characters. Similarly, reading rates decreased with decreasing luminance contrast. Thus, moderate or even high colour contrast does not guarantee quick visual perception, if the luminance contrast between characters and background is small. This is probably due to the fact that visual acuity (the ability to see small details) is considerably lower for pure colour information than for luminance information. Therefore, in user interfaces, good visibility of alphanumeric information requires clear luminance (brightness) difference between foreground and background.
Junghyun Park; Madeleine Schlag-Rey; John Schlag
In: Experimental Brain Research, vol. 149, no. 4, pp. 527–529, 2003.
When we look at a clock with a hand showing seconds, the hand sometimes appears to stay longer at its first-seen position than at the following positions, evoking an illusion of chronostasis. This illusory extension of perceived duration has been shown to be coupled to saccadic eye movement and it has been suggested to serve as a mechanism of maintaining spatial stability across the saccade. Here, we examined the effects of three kinds of voluntary movements on the illusion of chronostasis: key press, voice command, and saccadic eye movement. We found that the illusion can occur with all three kinds of voluntary movements if such movements start the clock immediately. When a delay is introduced between the voluntary movement and the start of the clock, the delay itself is overestimated. These results indicate that the illusion of chronostasis is not specific to saccadic eye movement, and may therefore involve a more general mechanism of how voluntary action influences time perception.
Junghyun Park; Madeleine Schlag-Rey; John Schlag
In: Vision Research, vol. 43, no. 15, pp. 1667–1674, 2003.
The temporal order of two spots of light successively appearing in the dark, just before a saccade, influences their perceived spatial relation. Both spots are mislocalized in the saccade direction - the second more so than the first - because mislocalization grows as time elapses from stimulus to saccade onset. On the other hand, the perceived order of the two spots may be altered if the second spot is at the focus of spatial attention. How would these illusory perceptions of space and time interact when they are brought to play together? Could they be independent or could one perception depend on the other? Here we show that perceived location of stimuli is not affected by illusory temporal order, whereas perceived temporal order is affected by misperceived location. The results suggest that the brain processes spatial location of visual stimuli before processing their temporal order.
Frank A. Proudlock; Himanshu Shekhar; Irene Gottlob
Coordination of eye and head movements during reading Journal Article
In: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 2991–2998, 2003.
PURPOSE. There is little information regarding the characteristics of head movements during reading. This study was undertaken to investigate horizontal and vertical head movements during two different reading tasks. METHODS. Head and eye movements were monitored with an infrared pupil and head tracker in 15 subjects during repeated reading of text from an A4-sized card and a card 90 degrees wide. In addition, head and eye movements were recorded in 45 subjects to compare head movement propensity during an A4 text-reading task and a saccadic task of an equivalent gaze shift. RESULTS. During the A4 standard reading task, horizontal and vertical head movements accounted for 4.7% and 28.7% of the gaze shift, respectively. During the 90 degrees text reading, horizontal head movements accounted for 40.3% of the gaze amplitude, and vertical head movements accounted for 28.4%. Horizontal gaze velocities increased significantly on repeated A4 and 90degrees text readings, as did horizontal head velocities and amplitudes. Reading head movement propensities were significantly smaller than saccadic head movement propensities (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS. Head movement strategies are rapidly switched between the A4 and 90 degrees text-reading paradigms. They are minimized during A4 text reading but actively assist the gaze strategy during 90degrees text reading. Horizontal head movement is reduced during A4 reading compared to the equivalent saccadic task and may be suppressed to improve fixation stability. The results support the view that the head and eye movement system is a highly coupled but extremely flexible system.
Frank A. Proudlock; Irene Gottlob; Cris S. Constantinescu
In: Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 88–91, 2002.
Oscillopsia in patients who have brain stem disorders but not nystagmus is attributed to a failure of the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) to compensate for head movements. We report a patient who had marked head titubation and oscillopsia in aggressive multiple sclerosis but no nystagmus. Her severe head titubation precluded our ability to measure a VOR accurately. Because oscillopsia has also been described after rapid voluntary head oscillations in normal subjects, we queried whether the oscillopsia in our patient could be ascribed to the head movement alone. Six normal control subjects did not experience oscillopsia while shaking their heads at the same frequency as the patient's titubation. We conclude that the oscillopsia in our patient was probably the result of an impaired VOR or an alternative compensatory mechanism.
Matthew S. Peterson; Arthur F. Kramer; David E. Irwin; Sowon Hahn
In: Visual Cognition, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 755–791, 2002.
The influence of abrupt onsets on attentionally demanding visual search (i.e., search for a letter target among heterogeneous letter distractors), as indexed by performance and eye movement measures, was investigated in a series of studies. In Experiments 1 and 2 we examined whether onsets would capture the eyes when the appearance of an onset predicted neither the location nor the identity of the target. Subjects did direct their eyes to the abrupt onsets on a disproportionate number of trials in these studies. Interestingly, however, onset capture was modulated by subjects' scan strategies. Furthermore, onsets captured the eyes less frequently than would have been predicted by paradigms showing attentional capture when no eye movements are required. Experiment 3 examined the question of whether onsets would capture the eyes in a situation in which they never served as the target. Capture was observed in this study. However, the magnitude of capture effects was substantially diminished as compared to previous behavioural studies in which the onset had a chance probability of serving as the target. These data are discussed in terms of the influence of top-down constraints on stimulus-driven attentional and oculomotor capture by abrupt onset stimuli.
Eyal M. Reingold
On the perceptual specificity of memory representations Journal Article
In: Memory, vol. 10, no. 5-6, pp. 365–379, 2002.
The present paradigm involved manipulating the congruency of the perceptual processing during the study and test phases of a recognition memory task. During each trial, a gaze-contingent window was used to limit the stimulus display to a region either inside or outside a 10 degrees square centred on the participant's point of gaze, constituting the Central and Peripheral viewing modes respectively. The window position changed in real time in concert with changes in gaze position. Four experiments documented better task performance when viewing modes at encoding and retrieval matched than when they mismatched (i.e., perceptual specificity effects). Viewing mode congruency effects were demonstrated with both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. The present research is motivated and discussed in terms of theoretical views proposed in the 1970s including the levels-of-processing framework and the proceduralist viewpoint. In addition, implications for current processing and multiple systems views of memory are outlined.
Eyal M. Reingold; Lester C. Loschky
In: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 491–499, 2002.
Gaze-contingent multiresolutional displays (GCMRDs) have been proposed to solve the processing and bandwidth bottleneck in many single-user displays, by dynamically placing high-resolution in a window at the center of gaze, with lower resolution everywhere else. The three experiments reported here document a slowing of peripheral target acquisition associated with the presence of a gaze-contingent window. This window effect was shown for displays using either moving video or still images. The win- dow effect was similar across a resolution-defined window condition and a luminance-defined window condition, suggesting that peripheral image degradation is not a prerequisite of this effect. The window effect was also unaffected by the type of window boundary used (sharp or blended). These results are interpreted in terms of an attentional bias resulting in a reduced saliency of peripheral targets due to increased competition from items within the window. We discuss the implications of the window effect for the study of natural scene perception and for human factors research related to GCMRDs.
Eyal M. Reingold; Dave M. Stampe
Saccadic inhibition in voluntary and reflexive saccades Journal Article
In: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 371–388, 2002.
The present study investigated saccadic inhibition in both voluntary and stimulus-elicited saccades. Two experiments examined saccadic inhibition caused by an irrelevant flash occurring subsequent to target onset. In each trial, participants were required to perform a single saccade following the presentation of a black target on a gray background, 4 degrees to the left or to the right of screen center. In some trials (flash trials), after a variable delay, a 33-msec flash was displayed at the top and bottom third of the monitor (these regions turned white). In all experimental conditions, histograms of flash-to-saccade latencies documented a decrease in saccadic frequency, forming a dip, time-locked to the flash and occurring as early as 60-70 msec following its onset. The fast latency of this effect strongly suggests a low-level, reflex-like, oculomotor effect, which was referred to as saccadic inhibition. A novel procedure was developed to allow comparisons of saccadic inhibition even across conditions, which in the absence of a flash (no-flash trials) produce dissimilar saccadic reaction times (SRTs) distributions. Experiment 1 examined the effects of the fixation stimulus on saccadic inhibition by contrasting three conditions: a gap condition (fixation stimulus disappeared 200 msec prior to target onset), a step condition (offset of the fixation stimulus was simultaneous with target onset), and an overlap condition (the fixation stimulus remained on for the duration of the trial). The overlap condition produced substantially stronger saccadic inhibition, relative to the gap and the step conditions. Experiment 2 contrasted the saccadic inhibition effect obtained for prosaccades (saccades aimed at the target) with the effect obtained for antisaccades (i.e., saccades aimed away from the same target). The onset of saccadic inhibition was earlier, and its magnitude was stronger, for antisaccades, relative to prosaccades. The plausibility that the superior colliculus is the neurophysiological locus of the saccadic inhibition effect was explored.
Paola Ricciardelli; Emanuela Bricolo; Salvatore M. Aglioti; Leonardo Chelazzi
In: NeuroReport, vol. 13, no. 17, pp. 2259–2264, 2002.
In this studyweinvestigated the tendencyofhumans toimitate the gaze direction of other individuals.Distracting gaze stimuli or non biological directional cues (arrows) were presented to observers performing an instructed saccadic eyemovement task. Eyemove- mentrecordings showed thatobserversperformedless accurately when the distracting gaze and the instructed saccade had opposite directions,with a substantial number of saccadesmatching the di- rection of the distracting gaze. Static (Experiment1) and dynamic (Experiment 2) gaze distracters, but not pointing arrows (Experiment 3), produced the e¡ect.Results showa strong predisposition of humans to imitate somebody else's oculomotor behaviour, even when detrimental to task performance. This is likely linked to a strong tendency to share attentional states of other individuals, known as joint attention.
Helena Ojanpää; Risto Näsänen; Ilpo Kojo
Eye movements in the visual search of word lists Journal Article
In: Vision Research, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 1499–1512, 2002.
The word identification span refers to the area of the visual field in which words can be identified during a single fixation. The purpose of the study was to estimate the vertical word identification span in a visual word search task, in which words were arranged in a vertical list. In addition, we studied the effect of list layout (orientation, length, and line spacing) on the speed of search and eye movements. The task of the observer was to identify a target word in a word list, where the other words were distracters. Threshold search time, that is, stimulus presentation time for correct identification at a probability level of 0.79, was determined by using a multiple alternative staircase method. Eye movements were recorded simultaneously. The results showed that, in vertical lists, 4-5 words could be identified during a single fixation. Thus, the vertical word identification span was 4-5 character spaces, whereas according to previous studies the horizontal word identification span is about 10 character spaces, which corresponds to 1-2 words. There were fewer fixations and the saccade amplitudes were smaller for vertical than for horizontal lists of the same length. However, search times did not depend on list orientation. This was due to longer fixation times for vertical lists. Further, since average fixation duration for vertical lists was longer than for horizontal lists, processing time seems to depend on the number of items within the span. textcopyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bettina Olk; Monika Harvey; Iain D. Gilchrist
First saccades reveal biases in recovered neglect Journal Article
In: Neurocase, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 306–313, 2002.
Hemispatial neglect affects the ability to explore space on the side opposite a brain lesion. This deficit is also mirrored in abnormal saccadic eye movement patterns. The present study investigated if the recovery of neglect is also reflected in saccadic eye movements. Patient AF, who displayed strong hemispatial neglect 1 month post-right thalamic stroke, had largely recovered 3 months later when tested on visual exploration tasks of the Behavioural Inattention Test. At this stage, AF was tested on a visual search task while his eye movements (direction, latencies and amplitudes of first saccades) and manual reaction times were recorded. The experimental conditions differed with respect to stimulus number and distracter type and increased in difficulty. AF correctly generated saccades into the neglected field when the target was presented alone. In contrast, a considerable left/right difference was present for all multiple-stimulus search displays. Although recovered from neglect in standardized assessment, AF showed a strong rightward bias resulting in highly asymmetric response times and eye movement behaviour. We conclude that eye movement patterns are far more susceptible to remaining spatial impairments and can thus provide a sensitive means to assess the extent of neglect recovery.
Scott D. Slotnick; Joseph B. Hopfinger; Stanley A. Klein; Erich E. Sutter
In: NeuroReport, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 773–778, 2002.
The aim of the present investigation was to determine the nature and spatial distribution of selective visual attention. Using cortical source localization of ERP data corresponding to 60 task-irrelevant stimuli across the visual field, we assessed attention effects on visual processing. Consistent with previous findings, visual processing was enhanced at the attended spatial location. In addition, this facilitation of processing extended from the attended location to the point of fixation resulting in a region of facilitation. Furthermore, a large region of inhibition was found surrounding this region of facilitation. The latter result is inconsistent with a simple facilitative spotlight model of attention and indicates that attention effects can be both facilitatory and inhibitory.
M. L. M. Tant; Frans W. Cornelissen; Aart C. Kooijman; Wiebo H. Brouwer
Hemianopic visual field defects elicit hemianopic scanning Journal Article
In: Vision Research, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1339–1348, 2002.
Previous explanations for the variability in success of compensating for homonymous hemianopia (HH) has been in terms of extent of the brain injury. In using on-line eye movement registrations, we simulated HH in 16 healthy subjects and compared their scanning performance on a dot counting task to their own "normal" condition and to real HH patients' performance. We evidenced clear parallels between simulated and real HH, suggesting that hemianopic scanning behaviour is primarily visually elicited, namely by the visual field defect, and not by the additional brain damage. We further observed age-related processes in compensating for the HH.
Sonja Stork; Sebastiaan F. W. Neggers; Jochen Müsseler
Intentionally-evoked modulations of smooth pursuit eye movements Journal Article
In: Human Movement Science, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 335–348, 2002.
When observers pursue a moving target with their eyes, they use predictions of future target positions in order to keep the target within the fovea. It was suggested that these predictions of smooth pursuit (SP) eye movements are computed only from the visual feedback of the target characteristics. As a consequence, if the target vanishes unexpectedly, the eye movements do not stop immediately, but they overshoot the vanishing point. We compared the spatial and temporal features of such predictive eye movements in a task with or without intentional control over the target vanishing point. If the observers stopped the target with a button press, the overshoot of the eyes was reduced compared to a condition where the offset was computer generated. Accordingly, the eyes started to decelerate well before the target offset and lagged further behind the target when it disappeared. The involvement of intentionally-generated expectancies in eye movement control was also obvious in the spatial trajectories of the eyes, which showed a clear flexion in anticipation of the circular motion path we used. These findings are discussed together with neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the SP eye movements.
Boris M. Velichkovsky; Sascha M. Dornhoefer; Mathias Kopf; Jens R. Helmert; Markus Joos
Change detection and occlusion modes in road-traffic scenarios Journal Article
In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 99–109, 2002.
Change blindness phenomena are widely known in cognitive science, but their relation to driving is not quite clear. We report a study where subjects viewed colour video stills of natural traffic while eye movements were recorded. A change could occur randomly in three different occlusion modes-blinks, blanks and saccades-or during a fixation (as control condition). These changes could be either relevant or irrelevant with respect to the traffic safety. We used deletions as well as insertions of objects. All occlusion modes were equivalent concerning detection rate and reaction time, deviating from the control condition only. The detection of relevant changes was both more likely and faster than that of irrelevant ones, particularly for relevant insertions, which approached the base line level. Even in this case, it took about 180 ms longer to react to changes when they occurred during a saccade, blink or blank. In a second study, relevant insertions and the blank occlusion were used in a driving simulator environment. We found a surprising effect in the dynamic setting: an advantage in change detection rate and time with blanks compared to the control condition. Change detection was also good during blinks, but not in saccades. Possible explanation of these effects and their practical implications are discussed.
Boris M. Velichkovsky; Alexandra Rothert; Mathias Kopf; Sascha M. Dornhoefer; Markus Joos
In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 145–156, 2002.
The analysis of eye movements can provide rich information about driver's attention and the course of behaviour in hazardous situations. We present data from a driving simulation study showing that the switching between preattentive and attentive processing is reflected in visual fixations. For this initial analysis, we considered fixations from the perspective of their duration and the amplitude of related saccades. Since fixation durations may change instantaneously from one fixation to the next, we further selected the temporal vicinity of the emerging hazard for a closer analysis of fixations around this time. With this second type of analysis, the fixations that actually "detect" a critical event can be discovered and their duration measured. Upon detection of an immediate hazard, there is an increase in fixation duration and a corresponding increase in occurrence of attentive fixations on the cost of preattentive ones. This switching from one level of processing to another is recognisable on a short, phasic time scale. We finally discuss attentional conditions where overlooked or not sufficiently processed hazards do not lead to the appropriate breaking reaction on the part of the driver.
Emanuela Bricolo; Tiziana Gianesini; Alessandra Fanini; Claus Bundesen; Leonardo Chelazzi
In: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 980–993, 2002.
In visual search, inefficient performance of human observers is typically characterized by a steady increase in reaction time with the number of array elements-the so-called set-size effect. In general, set-size effects are taken to indicate that processing of the array elements depends on limited-capacity resources, that is, it involves attention. Contrasting theories have been proposed to account for this attentional involvement, however. While some theories have attributed set-size effects to the intervention of serial attention mechanisms, others have explained set-size effects in terms of parallel, competitive architectures. Conclusive evidence in favor of one or the other notion is still lacking. Especially in view of the wide use of visual search paradigms to explore the functional neuroanatomy of attentional mechanisms in the primate brain, it becomes essential that the nature of the attentional involvement in these paradigms be clearly defined at the behavioral level. Here we report a series of experiments showing that highly inefficient search indeed recruits serial attention deployment to the individual array elements. In addition, we describe a number of behavioral signatures of serial attention in visual search that can be used in future investigations to attest a similar involvement of serial attention in other search paradigms. We claim that only after having recognized these signatures can one be confident that truly serial mechanisms are engaged in a given visual search task, thus making it amenable for exploring the functional neuroanatomy underlying its performance.
Harold Bekkering; Sebastiaan F. W. Neggers
Visual search is modulated by action intentions Journal Article
In: Psychological Science, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 370–374, 2002.
The influence of action intentions on visual selection processes was investigated in a visual search paradigm. A predefined target object with a certain orientation and color was presented among distractors, and subjects had to either look and point at the target or look at and grasp the target. Target selection processes prior to the first saccadic eye movement were modulated by the different action intentions. Specifically, fewer saccades to objects with the wrong orientation were made in the grasping condition than in the pointing condition, whereas the number of saccades to an object with the wrong color was the same in the two conditions. Saccadic latencies were similar under the different task conditions, so the results cannot be explained by a speed-accuracy trade-off. The results suggest that a specific action intention, such as grasping, can enhance visual processing of action-relevant features, such as orientation. Together, the findings support the view that visual attention can be best understood as a selection-for-action mechanism.
Eva Belke; Antje S. Meyer
In: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 237–266, 2002.
We investigated the time course of conjunctive ''same''–''different'' judgements for visually presented object pairs by means of combined reaction time and on-line eye movement measurements. The analyses of viewing patterns, viewing times, and reaction times showed that participants engaged in a parallel self-terminating search for differences. In addition, the results obtained for objects differing in only one dimension suggest that processing times may depend on the relative codability of the stimulus dimensions. The results are reviewed in a broader framework in view of higher-order processes. We propose that overspecifications of colour, often found in object descriptions, may have an ''early'' visual rather than a ''late'' linguistic origin. In a parallel assessment of the detection materials, participants overspecified the objects' colour substantially more often than their size. We argue that referential overspecifications of colour are largely attributable to mechanisms of visual discrimination.
Dale J. Barr; Boaz Keysar
Anchoring comprehension in linguistic precedents Journal Article
In: Journal of Memory and Language, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 391–418, 2002.
Past research has shown that when speakers refer to the same referent multiple times, they tend to standardize their descriptions by establishing linguistic precedents. In three experiments, we show that listeners reduce uncertainty in comprehension by taking advantage of these precedents. We tracked listeners' eye movements in a referential communication task and found that listeners identified referents more quickly when specific precedents existed than when there were none. Furthermore, we found that listeners expected speakers to adhere to precedents even in contexts where it would lead to referential overspecification. Finally, we provide evidence that the benefits of linguistic precedents are independent of mutual knowledge - listeners were not more likely to benefit from precedents when they were mutually known than when they were not. We conclude that listeners use precedents simply because they are available, not because they are mutually known.
F. Møller; M. L. Laursen; J. Tygesen; A. K. Sjølie
Binocular quantification and characterization of microsaccades Journal Article
In: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 240, no. 9, pp. 765–770, 2002.
BACKGROUND: The significance of microsaccades in the visual process has been discussed for more than 50 years. However, only a few studies have measured microsaccades binocularly, and detailed quantification and characterization of these small movements are needed in order to further understand their nature. METHOD: The amplitude, velocity, acceleration and direction of microsaccades were quantified binocularly in 10 normal test persons during a 40-s fixation task, using an infrared recording technique. RESULTS: All microsaccades for all test persons were performed simultaneously and individually with an almost identical amplitude in the right and left eye (a range of 0.003-0.042 deg between right and left eye mean values). The mean microsaccadic amplitude for the test persons was within a range of 0.223-1.079 deg. The directional difference between simultaneously-performed right and left eye microsaccades was less than 22.5 deg for 84.8% of the saccades, indicating that the majority of microsaccades are conjugated. Three different fixation patterns were identified and characterized: (1) a classic interplay between easily identified drifts and medium-sized microsaccades (mean amplitude range 0.328-0.413 deg); (2) long intersaccadic intervals (4-5 s) with almost absent drifts, followed by three or four large microsaccades (mean amplitude range 0.755-1.079 deg); and (3) low-amplitude drift movements interrupted by low-amplitude microsaccades (mean amplitude range 0.231-0.265 deg). CONCLUSION: Microsaccades are involuntary, predominantly conjugated, simultaneously performed, and of almost identical amplitude in the right and left eye, suggesting a central control mechanism for microsaccades at subcortical level.
Jason P. Mitchell; C. Neil MacRae; Iain D. Gilchrist
Working memory and the suppression of reflexive saccades Journal Article
In: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 95–103, 2002.
Conscious behavioral intentions can frequently fail under conditions of attentional depletion. In attempting to trace the cognitive origin of this effect, we hypothesized that failures of action control--specifically, oculomotor movement--can result from the imposition of fronto-executive load. To evaluate this prediction, participants performed an antisaccade task while simultaneously completing a working-memory task that is known to make variable demands on prefrontal processes (n-back task, see Jonides et al., 1997). The results of two experiments are reported. As expected, antisaccade error rates were increased in accordance with the fronto-executive demands of the n-back task (Experiment 1). In addition, the debilitating effects of working-memory load were restricted to the inhibitory component of the antisaccade task (Experiment 2). These findings corroborate the view that working memory operations play a critical role in the suppression of prepotent behavioral responses.
Casimir J. H. Ludwig; Iain D. Gilchrist
Stimulus-driven and goal-driven control over visual selection Journal Article
In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 902–912, 2002.
This article explored the extent to which stimulus-driven control over visual selection is modulated by goal-driven factors. Observers searched for a no-onset color target among 3 distractors and signaled its location either manually or with a saccade. Additional distractors appeared either with or without an abrupt onset and were either similar or dissimilar to the target. Abrupt onsets disrupted saccades to the target, especially when they shared the target color. Irrelevant onsets also interfered with the manual responses, but this interference was dependent on the particular type of manual response. Stimulus-driven and contingent capture can occur within a single paradigm, but the extent and nature of these effects depend on the specific response required.
Casimir J. H. Ludwig; Iain D. Gilchrist
Measuring saccade curvature: A curve-fitting approach Journal Article
In: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 618–624, 2002.
Saccade curvature is becoming a popular measure for detecting the presence of competing saccadic motor programs. Several different methods of quantifying saccade curvature have been employed. In the present study, we compared these metrics with each other and with novel measures based on curve fitting. Initial deviation metrics were only moderately associated with the more widely used metric of maximum curvature. The latter was strongly related to a recently developed area-based measure and to the novel methods based on second- and third-order polynomial fits. The curve-fitting methods showed that although most saccades curved in only one direction, there was a population of trajectories with both a maximum and a minimum (i.e., double-curved saccades). We argue that a curvature metric based on a quadratic polynomial fit deals effectively with both types of trajectories and, because it is based on all the samples of a saccade, is less susceptible to sampling noise.
Sebastiaan F. W. Neggers; H. Bekkering
In: Human Movement Science, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 37–64, 2002.
In the present study, we integrated two recent, at first sight contradictory findings regarding the question whether saccadic eye movements can be generated to a newly presented target during an ongoing hand movement. Saccades were measured during so-called adaptive and sustained pointing conditions. In the adapted pointing condition, subjects had to direct both their gaze and arm movements to a displaced target location. The results showed that the eyes could fixate the new target during pointing. In addition, a temporal coupling of these corrective saccades was found with changes in arm movement trajectories when reaching to the new target. In the sustained pointing condition, however, the same subjects had to point to the initial target, while trying to deviate their gaze to a new target that appeared during pointing. It was found that the eyes could not fixate the new target before the hand reached the initial target location. Together, the results indicate that ocular gaze is always forced to follow the target intended by a manual arm movement. A neural mechanism is proposed that couples ocular gaze to the target of an arm movement. Specifically, the mechanism includes a reach neuron layer besides the well-known saccadic layer in the primate superior colliculus. Such a tight, sub-cortical coupling of ocular gaze to the target of a reaching movement can explain the contrasting behavior of the eyes in dependency of whether the eye and hand share the same target position or attempt to move to different locations.
Bob McMurray; Michael K. Tanenhaus; Richard N. Aslin
In: Cognition, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. B33–B42, 2002.
In order to determine whether small within-category differences in voice onset time (VOT) affect lexical access, eye movements were monitored as participants indicated which of four pictures was named by spoken stimuli that varied along a 0-40 ms VOT continuum. Within-category differences in VOT resulted in gradient increases in fixations to cross-boundary lexical competitors as VOT approached the category boundary. Thus, fine-grained acoustic/phonetic differences are preserved in patterns of lexical activation for competing lexical candidates and could be used to maximize the efficiency of on-line word recognition.
Amelia R. Hunt; Raymond M. Klein
Eliminating the cost of task set reconfiguration Journal Article
In: Memory and Cognition, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 529–539, 2002.
With insufficient time to fully prepare for a switch in task, a deterioration in performance on the first trial of a new task would be expected. The interest of researchers has been captured by the residual switch costs that, surprisingly, remain despite sufficient time to prepare. We used avery simple task to investigate the costs to reaction time and accuracy associated with changing between two different instructional sets every eight trials. Subjects responded to left and right visual targets by making either spatially compatible or incompatible eye movements (Experiment 1) or buttonpress responses (Experiment 2). The subjects were cued as to whether to make the compatible or the incompatible response by the color of a border appearing on the perimeter of the display. In cases in which the subject alternated between making pro- and antisaccades, the large costs to reaction time and accuracy at the short cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony were completely eliminated when sufficient time was provided to prepare for the switch. This complete elimination of residual switch costs was not obtained when the same alternation was applied to manual responses. This pattern of results links residual costs to response selection processes and suggests that they are not a necessary component of the switch process. We propose that the elimination of "stubborn" residual switch costs is rooted in our use of a hypercompatible task (making saccades toward targets) that places minimal demands on response selection.
Jukka Hyönä; Robert F. Lorch; Johanna K. Kaakinen
In: Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 44–55, 2002.
Eye fixation patterns were used to identify reading strategies of adults as they read multiple-topic expository texts. A clustering technique distinguished 4 strategies that differed with respect to the ways in which readers reprocessed text. The processing of fast linear readers was characterized by the absence of fixations returning to previous text. Slow linear readers made lots of forward fixations and reinspected each sentence before moving to the next. The reading of nonselective reviewers was characterized by look backs to previous sentences. The distinctive feature of topic structure processors was that they paid close attention to headings. They also had the largest working-memory capacity and wrote the most accurate text summaries. Thus, qualitatively distinct reading strategies are observable among competent, adult readers.
Jukka Hyönä; Seppo Vainio; Matti Laine
In: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 417–433, 2002.
The effect of morphological complexity on word identification was studied in three experiments conducted in Finnish, employing the same set of target nouns. In Experiment 1, the target nouns were presented in isolation, and lexical decision times were employed as lexical access measures. In Experiments 2 and 3, the same wordsnwere embedded in sentence contexts, where both the inflected and non-inflected forms were equally plausible, and eye fixation patterns (Exp. 2) and lexical decision latencies (Exp. 3) were recorded. The experiment with isolated words replicated previous lexical decision studies by showing more effortful processing for inflected than monomorphemic nouns. However, this morphological complexity effect did not generalise to the context experiments; fixation durations and response latencies were highly similar for inflected and monomorphemic words. It is suggested that, at least for the type of inflected nouns studied,nthe morphological effect observed for isolated words may derive from the syntactic and/or semantic level and not necessarily from the lexical level, as previously assumed.
Albrecht W. Inhoff; Cynthia M. Connine; Ralph Radach
In: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 471–480, 2002.
A novel eye-movement-contingent method is presented. It builds on and extends established eye-movement-contingent visual display change methods in that it uses movements of the eyes to control the presentation of acoustic information during sentence reading. In one implementation, an irrelevant spoken word is presented when the eyes cross a predetermined spatial boundary before they move on to a selected visual target word. The relationship between the spoken word and the visual target is manipulated, and the pattern of interference, caused by the presentation of the spoken word, is used to determine the nature and time course of activated representations. Results from three recently completed experiments in which the technique was used show that a word's phonological code remains active after it has been read and that the activated code has speech-like properties.
Sunila Jain; Frank A. Proudlock; Cris S. Constantinescu; Irene Gottlob
In: American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 134, no. 5, pp. 780–782, 2002.
PURPOSE: To describe a combined pharmacological and surgical approach to treating acquired nystagmus in a patient with multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Interventional case report. METHODS: A 40-year-old patient with acquired horizontal and vertical nystagmus and severe oscillopsia secondary to multiple sclerosis had combined treatment with gabapentin and a vertical Kestenbaum-type procedure. RESULTS: After gabapentin treatment (3,000 mg orally daily) the horizontal nystagmus was significantly reduced, and the patient developed a marked chin-up position. The vertical nystagmus remained unchanged, dampening on downgaze. A recession of both inferior rectus muscles reduced the nystagmus significantly in primary position, the abnormal head position disappeared, and oscillopsia completely resolved. Treatment increased visual acuity from 6/24 in the right eye and 6/60 in the left eye to 6/9 in both eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Acquired nystagmus in multiple sclerosis can be significantly improved by using a combined pharmacological and surgical approach.
Timothy L. Hodgson; Dominic J. Mort; M. M. Chamberlain; Samuel B. Hutton; K. S. O'Neill; Christopher Kennard
Orbitofrontal cortex mediates inhibition of return Journal Article
In: Neuropsychologia, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 1891–1901, 2002.
Recent accounts have proposed that orbitofrontal cerebral cortex mediates the control of behavior based on emotional feedback and its somatic correlates. Here, we describe the performance of a patient with circumscribed damage to orbitofrontal cortex during a task that requires switching between sensory-motor mappings, contingent on the occurrence of positive and negative reward feedbacks. In this test, normal subjects and other patients with prefrontal damage show an increase in latencies for eye movements towards locations at which a negative feedback was presented on the preceding trial. In contrast, our patient does not show this reward-dependent inhibition of return effect on saccades. She was also found to make an increased rate of ocular refixations during visual search and used a disorganized search strategy in a token foraging task. These findings suggest that orbital regions of the prefrontal cortex mediate an inhibitory effect on actions directed towards locations that have been subject to negative reinforcement. Further, this mechanism seems to play a role in controlling natural search and foraging behavior.
Timothy L. Hodgson; B. Tiesman; Adrian M. Owen; Christopher Kennard
In: Neuropsychologia, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 411–422, 2002.
We have taken a novel approach to the study of problem solving involving the detailed analysis of natural scanning eye movements during the 'one touch' Tower of London task. Control subjects and patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PDs) viewed a series of pictures depicting two arrangements of coloured balls in pockets within the upper and lower halves of a computer display. The task was to plan (but not execute) the shortest movement sequence required to rearrange the balls in one half of the display (the Workspace) to match the arrangement in the opposite half (the Goalspace) and indicate the number of moves required for problem solution. As problem complexity increased, control subjects spent proportionally more time fixating the Workspace region. This pattern was found regardless of whether subjects were instructed to solve problems by rearranging balls in the lower or upper visual fields. The distribution of gaze within the Workspace was also found to be problem dependent, with gaze being selectively directed towards the problem critical balls. In contrast, PDs were found to make more errors in the task and failed to show any dissociation in the amount of time fixating the two halves of the display. This pattern suggests that the patients had difficulty in encoding and/or maintaining current goals during problem solving, consistent with a role for fronto-striatal circuits in mechanisms of working memory and attention.
Veerle Gysen; Peter De Graef; Karl Verfaillie
In: Vision Research, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 379–391, 2002.
In a display with a stationary and a moving object, subjects saccaded towards one of the objects and had to detect intrasaccadic changes in position or orientation of either the saccade target or the saccade flanker. Compared to performance for stationary objects, displacement detection for translating objects was better and unaffected by saccadic status of the changed object. This pattern proved to be specific to position changes in translating objects and did not generalize to other types of motion (i.e., rotation) or to other types of intrasaccadic changes (i.e., orientation shifts). Superior transsaccadic coding of the position of a translating object was also observed in control experiments with only a single object present on each trial. Possible accounts in terms of selective attention to moving objects and perceptual relevance of object position are pitted against the data, suggesting qualitative differences in the transsaccadic representation of translating and stationary objects.
Veerle Gysen; Karl Verfaillie; Peter De Graef
In: Vision Research, vol. 42, no. 16, pp. 2021–2030, 2002.
In a display with a stationary and a translating object, subjects made a saccade towards one of the objects and had to detect intrasaccadic changes in the position of either the saccade target or the saccade flanker. Sensitivity for displacements of the stationary and moving objects was measured in conditions with (60 and 220 ms) and without blanking. In the conditions without blanking, displacement detection for translating objects was better than detection for stationary objects, which confirmed previous results (Vis. Res. 42 (2002) 379). This pattern was reversed in the blanking conditions: Sensitivity for intrasaccadic displacements of the translating object decreased drastically in comparison to conditions without a blank and was even lower than sensitivity for the stationary object. The results suggest differences in the transsaccadic spatial representation of translating and stationary objects. While a change in the spatial position of a stationary object can be detected after a blank period of 60 and 220 ms, this seems impossible for a translating object, indicating timing differences in postsaccadic spatial localization processes. Accounts in terms of a fast and accurate motion processing mechanism that possibly makes use of gain control are discussed. textcopyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Veerle Gysen; Karl Verfaillie; Peter De Graef
In: Vision Research, vol. 42, no. 14, pp. 1785–1796, 2002.
Previously Gysen, De Graef, and Verfaillie [Vision Research 42 (2002) 379] showed that, with stimulus displays presenting one stationary and one translating object, sensitivity for intrasaccadic displacements was higher for translating than for stationary objects. In the present paper the importance of the relative encoding of the path of the translating object towards the stationary object is investigated. In three experiments we compared detection of intrasaccadic displacements of translating objects in relative motion (moving towards the landmark object) and translating objects moving in isolation. No 'facilitatory' effect of relative motion was found. However a visual field effect was present. Performance was always better for the translating object presented in the lower part in comparison to the upper part of the visual field. A fourth experiment investigated the sensitivity for intrasaccadic displacements of stationary and translating objects presented in the upper as well as in the lower visual field. A lower visual field advantage was observed. The superior performance for translating objects, as was found previously, was confirmed in the lower and upper visual field.
Monika Harvey; Bettina Olk; Keith Muir; Iain D. Gilchrist
In: Neuropsychologia, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 705–717, 2002.
Hemispatial neglect affects both the ability to respond to targets on the contralesional side of space and to programme saccades to such targets. In the current study, we looked in detail at saccade programming and manual reaction times (RTs) in a range of visual search tasks, in which task difficulty was systematically increased by changing the nature of the distractors. In condition 1, the target was presented with no distractors. In the other conditions, displays contained three distractors that were changed across conditions to manipulate similarity to the target and so task difficulty. We tested two neglect patients, one chronic, one recovered along with two RCVA control patients and 12 age-matched controls. Both neglect patients studied could successfully execute saccades into the neglected field when the target was presented alone. However, a dissociation emerged between the two patients when the target was presented with distractor items. Patient ERs first saccade to target performance in the three search conditions revealed clear effects of distractor type. In contrast for the recovered patient AF, the left/right difference was present for all search displays and appeared to be constant regardless of distractor type. This differential pattern of behaviour may reflect the different underlying neural causes of the neglect in these patients. In the current study, the measurement of saccades allowed the task to be fractionated, and thus, reveal the action of multiple mechanisms controlling saccades in search.
Johanna K. Kaakinen; Jukka Hyönä; Janice M. Keenan
Perspective effects on online text processing Journal Article
In: Discourse Processes, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 159–173, 2002.
The effect of a reading perspective on online text processing was studied by recording readers' eye movements during reading. Participants read an expository text about 4 countries with the goal of deciding whether one of the countries, designated by the experimenter as the reading perspective, would be a good new place of residence. The results showed better memory for perspective-relevant information and longer fixation times on perspective-relevant information. Individual differences in working memory were assessed with the reading span test. Results showed that the time course of the perspective effect varied with memory span: High-span readers showed a perspective relevance effect on initial reading of the target segments, whereas low-span readers showed the effect only in the later look backs.
David A. Leopold; Holger K. Plettenberg; Nikos K. Logothetis
In: Experimental Brain Research, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 359–372, 2002.
We used optokinetic responses and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine visual processing in monkeys whose conscious state was modulated by low doses (1-2 mg/kg) of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine. We found that, despite the animal's dissociated state and despite specific influences of ketamine on the oculomotor system, optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) could be reliably elicited with large, moving visual patterns. Responses were horizontally bidirectional for monocular stimulation, indicating that ketamine did not eliminate cortical processing of the motion stimulus. Also, results from fMRI directly demonstrated that the cortical blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response to visual patterns was preserved at the same ketamine doses used to elicit OKN. Finally, in the ketamine-anesthetized state, perceptually bistable motion stimuli produced patterns of spontaneously alternating OKN that normally would be tightly coupled to perceptual changes. These results, taken together, demonstrate that after ketamine administration cortical circuits continue to processes visual patterns in a dose-dependent manner despite the animal's behavioral dissociation. While perceptual experience is difficult to evaluate under these conditions, oculomotor patterns revealed that the brain not only registers but also acts upon its sensory input, employing it to drive a sensorimotor loop and even responding to a sensory conflict by engaging in spontaneous perception-related state changes. The ketamine-anesthetized monkey preparation thereby offers a safe and viable paradigm for the behavioral and electrophysiological investigation of issues related to conscious perception and anesthesia, as well as neural mechanisms of basic sensory processing.
Chiang-Shan Ray Li; Shih Chieh Lin
In: Cognitive Brain Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 269–276, 2002.
A motor response to a visual target presented at a precued spatial location is facilitated if the target is presented shortly after the cue and inhibited when the cue target onset asynchrony approaches a few hundred milliseconds. The latter effect is termed inhibition of return (IOR). It is suggested that IOR provides an important strategy for effective search in our visual environment. Despite studies demonstrating IOR in a number of behavioral tasks, its neural mechanism has remained elusive. As a fundamental step toward understanding these mechanisms, the current study examines whether IOR mainly involves a perceptual or a motor process. We conducted a series of experiments, in which the target instructed saccades to the cued or to a different location. In each experiment, we observed a similar pattern of IOR when the target followed the cue, but not when the saccade was directed to the cued location. In another two experiments, we demonstrated that the magnitude and temporal profile of IOR varied depending on whether an eye movement or a manual response was involved. Overall, the present study suggests that IOR results predominantly from a perceptual level mechanism, with its magnitude and time course modulated by the activation of specific motor effectors. We discuss the implications of these results for attention gating of perceptual inputs and for mechanisms of visuomotor control.
Chiang-Shan Ray Li; Shih Chieh Lin
Inhibition of return in temporal order saccades Journal Article
In: Vision Research, vol. 42, no. 17, pp. 2089–2093, 2002.
Inhibition of return (IOR) is an attention mechanism that expedites the search of an object in our environment. Results in different studies support either a perceptual or motor account of IOR. One problem with the perceptual account is that IOR has not been observed in temporal order judgment. Here we demonstrate that IOR can be observed in a temporal order saccade task where eye movement instead of manual response is used to select the target. The result suggests the importance of monitoring eye movement in studies of IOR.
Hyung-Chul O. Li; Eli Brenner; Frans W. Cornelissen; Eun-Soo Kim
In: Vision Research, vol. 42, no. 23, pp. 2569–2575, 2002.
Even when the retinal image of a static scene is constantly shifting, as occurs when the viewer pursues a small moving object with his or her eyes, the scene is usually correctly perceived to be static. Following early suggestions by von Helmholtz, it is commonly believed that this spatial stability is achieved by combining retinal and extra-retinal signals. Here, we report a perceptually salient 2D shape distortion that can arise during pursuit. We provide evidence that the perceived 2D shape reflects retinal image contents alone, implying that the extra-retinal signal is ignored when judging 2D shape. textcopyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tanja R. M. Coeckelbergh
The effect of visual field defects on driving performance Journal Article
In: Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 120, no. 11, pp. 1509–1516, 2002.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of visual field de-fects on driving performance, and to predict practical fit-ness to drive. Methods: The driving performance of 87 subjects with visual field defects due to ocular abnormalities was as-sessed on a driving simulator and during an on-road driv-ing test. Outcome Measures: The final score on the on-road driving test and simulator indexes, such as driving speed, viewing behavior, lateral position, time-headway, and time to collision. Results: Subjects with visual field defects showed dif-ferential performance on measures of driving speed, steer-ing stability, lateral position, time to collision, and time-headway. Effective compensation consisted of reduced driving speed in cases of central visual field defects and increased scanning in cases of peripheral visual field de-fects. The sensitivity and specificity of models based on vision, visual attention, and compensatory viewing effi-ciency were increased when the distance at which the sub-ject started to scan was taken into account. Conclusions: Subjects with visual field defects demon-strated differential performance on several driving simu-lator indexes. Driving examiners considered reduced speed and increased scanning to be valid compensation for cen-tral and peripheral visual field defects, respectively. Pre-dicting practical fitness to drive was improved by taking driving simulator indexes into account.
Tanja R. M. Coeckelbergh; Frans W. Cornelissen; Wiebo H. Brouwer; Aart C. Kooijman
In: Vision Research, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 669–677, 2002.
Eye movements of subjects with visual field defects due to ocular pathology were monitored while performing a dot counting task and a visual search task. Subjects with peripheral field defects required more fixations, longer search times, made more errors, and had shorter fixation durations than control subjects. Subjects with central field defects performed less well than control subjects although no specific impairment could be pinpointed. In both groups a monotonous relationship was observed between the visual field impairment and eye movement parameters. The use of eye movement parameters to predict viewing behavior in a complex task (e.g. driving) was limited.
Charles A. Collin; Avi Chaudhuri
In: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 500–508, 2002.
We present a program for MATLAB that generates and presents the heterochromatic fusion nystagmus stimulus. This stimulus allows assessment of isoluminant states through recordings of reflexive eye movements (optokinetic nystagmus). The reflexive nature of the subject's response makes this stimulus especially useful with nonverbal subjects, such as children and animals. Unfortunately, the stimulus is complex and difficult to program. By presenting the present program, we hope to help those who wish to use this tool in their research. The code of the function can be downloaded at www. dal.ca/-mcmullen/downloads.html.
Frans W. Cornelissen; Enno M. Peters; John Palmer
In: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 613–617, 2002.
The Eyelink Toolbox software supports the measurement of eye movements. The toolbox provides an interface between a high-level interpreted language (MATLAB), a visual display programming tool- box (Psychophysics Toolbox), and a video-based eyetracker (Eyelink). The Eyelink Toolbox enables experimenters to measure eye movements while simultaneously executing the stimulus presentation routines provided by the Psychophysics Toolbox. Example programs are included with the toolbox distribution. Information on the Eyelink Toolbox can be found at http://psychtoolbox.org/.
Michael D. Crossland; Gary S. Rubin
The use of an infrared eyetracker to measure fixation stability Journal Article
In: Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 79, no. 11, pp. 735–739, 2002.
PURPOSE: To assess fixation stability in patients, a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) has typically been required. Disadvantages of this technique include the need for a fixed viewing distance and rigid head support. Some modern infrared eyetrackers do not have these constraints. The purpose of this study was to compare fixation stability measurements made with these instruments. METHODS: Normal subjects were asked to fixate a 2.5 degrees high cross while fixation was measured with a SLO and an infrared eyetracker. Bivariate contour ellipse areas were calculated. RESULTS: There was a linear relationship between the bivariate contour ellipse areas measured using each instrument. Bivariate contour ellipse areas returned from the eyetracker were larger. There was no difference in test-retest variability between the instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The eyetracker indicates fixation to be less stable than the SLO does, perhaps because of eye movements to compensate for small head movements. Our eyetracker can be used to analyze fixation when viewing images at any distance, without the need for head immobilization. The eyetracker and the SLO complement each other in the investigation of visual behavior.
Jason S. Carley; Arthur F. Kramer; Matthew S. Peterson
Overt and covert object based attention Journal Article
In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 751–758, 2002.
To examine the role of perceptual object representations in the control of eye movements and attention, a pair of experiments adapted the object-cuing paradigm of Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994) to require eye movements. Displays were pairs of adjacent rectangles, each containing two characters. Observers were asked to make a speeded judgment of a target character's orientation, and a cue was provided prior to target/distractor onset to indicate the target's likely location. Gaze-contingent presentation of target and distractors was used to demand overt scanning of displays. Eye movements during task perfor- mance evinced two forms of object-based effects. First, saccades following fixation on an invalidly cued item were more likely to be made within the cued rectangle than between rectangles. Second, sac- cades within the cued rectangle were preceded by shorter dwell times than saccades between rectan- gles. Extrafoveal processing of stimuli within the cued rectangle, however, was not facilitated, suggest- ing that covert attention was not allocated more densely within the cued than within the uncued object.
Lana Dépatie; Gillian A. O'Driscoll; Anne Lise V. Holahan; Victoria Atkinson; Joseph X. Thavundayil; N. Ng Ying Kin; Samarthji Lal
In: Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1056–1070, 2002.
We investigated the effect of nicotine on three behavioral markers of risk for schizophrenia: sustained attention (using the Continuous Performance Task (CPT)), antisaccade performance, and smooth pursuit. Smooth pursuit was investigated in two conditions, one in which attention was enhanced (monitoring target changes) and one in which attention was not enhanced (no monitoring). Patients with schizophrenia (n = 15) and controls (n = 14) were given a 14-mg nicotine patch in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design and plasma nicotine concentrations were monitored. Nicotine concentrations were similar in both groups. A Group X Drug interaction (p < .02) on CPT hits indicated that nicotine improved sustained attention in patients but not in controls. Nicotine significantly decreased antisaccade errors (p < .01) in both groups. A Drug X Monitoring condition interaction (p < .01) on pursuit gain indicated that nicotine significantly increased pursuit gain in the no-monitoring condition in patients and controls equally, but did not improve pursuit in the monitoring condition. Thus, improvement in pursuit may have been mediated via an effect on attention rather than by an effect on oculomotor function per se. In patients, the magnitude of improvement in attention on nicotine was correlated with the improvement on eye movement tasks. Thus, nicotine improves performance on both attention and oculomotor markers of risk for schizophrenia, possibly via common mechanisms.
Timothy Desmet; Constantijn De Baecke; Marc Brysbaert
In: Memory and Cognition, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 150–157, 2002.
In an eye-tracking experiment we investigated the influence of referential context on the attachment of a relative clause to two possible hosts (as in "Someone shot the servant of the actress who was on the balcony"). The attachment of the relative clause was disambiguated grammatically at the first word after the onset of the ambiguity in order to investigate immediate effects of discourse. The contexts had been verified in a sentence completion study to make sure that they induced a strong bias toward early or late closure. The results of the reading experiment, however, revealed no significant interaction of referential context with the attachment preference of the relative clause. The only robust and consistent effect we found was a preference for early closure, independent of the preceding context. These data favor accounts positing that referential context does not influence the initial attachment decision, but does play a role in later phases of sentence processing.
M. C. Doyle; Robin Walker
In: Experimental Brain Research, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 116–130, 2002.
In a series of experiments, we examined the change in saccade trajectories observed when distractors are presented at non-target locations. The primary aim of the experiments was to examine multisensory interaction effects between the visual, auditory and somatosensory modalities in saccade generation. In each experiment observers made saccades to visual targets above and below fixation in the presence of visual, auditory or tactile stimuli to the left or right of fixation. In experiment 1 distractor location indicated which of two stimuli was the target for the saccade. Saccade trajectories showed strong leftward curvature following right-side distractors and showed rightward curvature following left-side distractors. The largest effects on trajectories were observed for visual distractors, but significant curvature was observed with auditory and somatosensory distractors. In experiment 2 saccades were made following the onset of a visual target (reflexive) or following presentation of an arrow at fixation (voluntary), and task-irrelevant crossmodal distractors were presented simultaneously with target onset. Both voluntary and reflexive saccades were found to curve away from task-irrelevant visual distractors, but auditory and somatosensory distractors did not modulate saccade trajectories. In experiment 3 task-irrelevant distractors preceded the onset of the target by 100 ms. Reflexive saccades were found to curve away from visual, auditory and somatosensory distractors, but voluntary saccades curved away from visual distractors only. The modulation of saccade trajectories by distractors from different modalities is interpreted in terms of inhibitory processes operating in neural structures involved in saccade generation. Our findings suggest that visual, auditory and somatosensory distractors can all modulate saccade trajectories. Such effects could be related to the inhibition of populations of neurons, in a common motor map, for the selection of a saccade target.
Martin Greschner; Markus Bongard; Pal Rujan; Josef Ammermüller
In: Nature Neuroscience, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 341–347, 2002.
Image movements relative to the retina are essential for the visual perception of stationary objects during fixation. Here we have measured fixational eye and head movements of the turtle, and determined their effects on the activity of retinal ganglion cells by simulating the movements on the isolated retina. We show that ganglion cells respond mainly to components of periodic eye movement that have amplitudes of roughly the diameter of a photoreceptor. Drift or small head movements have little effect. Driven cells that are located along contrast borders are synchronized, which reliably signals a preceding movement. In an artificial neural network, the estimation of spatial frequencies for various square wave gratings improves when timelocked to this synchronization. This could potentially improve stimulus feature estimation by the brain.
Richard Godijn; Jan Theeuwes
In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 28, pp. 1039–1054, 2002.
Participants were required to make a saccade to a uniquely colored target while ignoring the presentation of an onset distractor. The results provide evidence for a competitive integration model of saccade programming that assumes endogenous and exogenous saccades are programmed in a common saccade map. The model incorporates a lateral interaction structure in which saccade-related activation at a specific location spreads to neighboring locations but inhibits distant locations. In addition, there is top-down, location-specific inhibition of locations to which the saccade should not go. The time course of exogenous and endogenous activation in the saccade map can explain a variety of eye movement data, including endpoints, latencies, and trajectories of saccades and the well-known global effect
Richard Godijn; Jan Theeuwes
In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1039–1054, 2002.
Participants were required to make a saccade to a uniquely colored target while ignoring the presentation of an onset distractor. The results provide evidence for a competitive integration model of saccade programming that assumes endogenous and exogenous saccades are programmed in a common saccade map. The model incorporates a lateral interaction structure in which saccade-related activation at a specific location spreads to neighboring locations but inhibits distant locations. In addition, there is top-down, location-specific inhibition of locations to which the saccade should not go. The time course of exogenous and endogenous activation in the saccade map can explain a variety of eye movement data, including endpoints, latencies, and trajectories of saccades and the well-known global effect.
Richard Godijn; Jan Theeuwes
In: Psychological Research, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 234–246, 2002.
Previous research has shown that when subjects search for a particular target object the sudden appearance of a new object captures the eyes on a large proportion of trials. The present study examined whether the onset affects the oculomotor system even when the eyes move directly towards the target. Ten participants ranging in age from 18-28 yrs served as paid volunteers. Using a modified version of the oculomotor paradigm (see Theeuwes, Kramer, Hahn, & Irwin, 1998) we show that when the eyes moved to the target object, subsequent saccades were inhibited from moving to a location at which a new object had previously appeared (inhibition-of-return; IOR). Whether or not a saccade to the onset was executed had no effect on the size of the inhibition. In particular conditions, the trajectories of saccades to the target objects were slightly curved in the opposite direction of the onset. The data are interpreted in the context of a novel hypothesis regarding oculomotor IOR.
Maarten A. Frens
Scleral search coils influence saccade dynamics Journal Article
In: Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 692–698, 2002.
The scleral search coil technique is commonly used for recording eye movements. The goal of this paper is to investigate to what extent the placement of scleral search coils onto the eyes influences the kinematics of saccades. To that end saccadic eye movements of human subjects were recorded with an infrared video system, while they wore coils and we compared the main sequence properties with recordings in which no coils were mounted on the eyes. It was found that saccades last longer (by about 8%) and become slower (by about 5%) when both eyes wear coils. This is truly due to the fact that the coils are on the eyes and not due to other factors that are part of this method, such as the scleral anesthesia. The influence of coils in both eyes was also observed when one coil was mounted on one eye only. Therefore the effect that the coils have on the eye movements cannot be attributed to purely mechanical factors, such as inertial load on the eyeball or increased friction. Rather the coils appear to change the oculomotor command signals that drive the saccadic eye movements.
Elliot M. Frohman; Teresa C. Frohman; Padraig O'Suilleabhain; H. Zhang; K. Hawker; M. K. Racke; W. Frawley; J. T. Phillips; Phillip D. Kramer
In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 73, pp. 51–55, 2002.
Background: There is a poor correlation between multiple sclerosis disease activity, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical disability. Objective: To establish oculographic criteria for the diagnosis and severity of internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO), so that future studies can link the severity of ocular dysconjugacy with neuro- radiological abnormalities within the dorsomedial brain stem tegmentum. Methods: The study involved 58 patients with multiple sclerosis and chronic INO and 40 normal sub- jects. Two dimensional infrared oculography was used to derive the versional dysconjugacy index (VDI)—the ratio of abducting to adducting eye movements for peak velocity and acceleration. Diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis and severity of INO were derived using a Z score and histogram analysis, which allowed comparisons of the VDI from multiple sclerosis patients and from a control population. Results: For a given saccade, the VDI was typically higher for acceleration v velocity, whereas the Z scores for velocity measures were always higher than values derived from comparable acceleration VDI measures; this was related to the greater variability of acceleration measures. Thus velocity was a more reliable measure from which to determine Z scores and thereby the criteria for INO and its level of severity. The mean (SD) value of the VDI velocity derived from 40 control subjects was 0.922 (0.072). The highest VDI for velocity from a normal control subject was 1.09, which was 2.33 SD above the normal control mean VDI. We therefore chose 2 SD beyond this value (that is, a Z score of 4.33) as the minimum criterion for the oculographic confirmation of INO. Of patients thought to have unilateral INO on clinical grounds, 70% (16/23) were found to have bilateral INO on oculographic assessment. Conclusions: INO can be confirmed and characterised by level of severity using Z score analysis of quantitative oculography. Such assessments may be useful for linking the level of severity of a specific clinical disability with neuroradiological measures of brain tissue pathology in multiple sclerosis. I
Danny Gagnon; Gillian A. O'Driscoll; Michael Petrides; G. B. Pike
In: Brain, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 123–139, 2002.
It has been argued that saccade generation is supported by two systems, a'where' system that decides the direction and extent of an impending saccade, and a 'when' system that is involved in the timing of the release of fixation. We evaluated the contributions of these systems to saccade latencies, and used functional MRI to identify the neural substrates of these systems. We found that advance knowledge of the direction and the timing of an impending target movement had both overlapping and discrete effects on saccade latencies and on neural activation. Knowledge of either factor decreased regular saccade latencies. However, knowledge of target direction increased the number of predictive and express saccades while knowledge of target timing did not. The brain activation data showed that advance knowledge of the direction or the timing of the target movement activated primarily overlapping structures. The precentral gyrus, in the region of the frontal eye fields, was more active in conditions in which some aspect of the target movement was predictable than in saccade control and fixation conditions. In the basal ganglia, activation discriminated between advance knowledge of target timing and target direction. The lenticular nuclei were more active when only target timing was known in advance, while the caudate was more active when only target direction was known in advance. These data suggest that the neural structures supporting the 'where' and 'when' systems are highly overlapping, although there is some dissociation sub-cortically. Knowledge of target timing and target direction converge in precentral gyrus, a region where there is strong evidence of context-dependent modulation of neural activity.
Steven Yantis; Jens Schwarzbach; John T. Serences; Robert L. Carlson; Michael A. Steinmetz; James J. Pekar; Susan M. Courtney
In: Nature Neuroscience, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 995–1002, 2002.
Observers viewing a complex visual scene selectively attend to relevant locations or objects and ignore irrelevant ones. Selective attention to an object enhances its neural representation in extrastriate cortex, compared with those of unattended objects, via top-down attentional control signals. The posterior parietal cortex is centrally involved in this control of spatial attention. We examined brain activity during attention shifts using rapid, event-related fMRI of human observers as they covertly shifted attention between two peripheral spatial locations. Activation in extrastriate cortex increased after a shift of attention to the contralateral visual field and remained high during sustained contralateral attention. The time course of activity was substantially different in posterior parietal cortex, where transient increases in activation accompanied shifts of attention in either direction. This result suggests that activation of the parietal cortex is associated with a discrete signal to shift spatial attention, and is not the source of a signal to continuously maintain the current attentive state.
S. -N. Yang; George W. McConkie
In: Vision Research, vol. 41, no. 25–26, pp. 3567–3585, 2001.
As people read continuous text, on occasional single eye fixations the text was replaced by one of six alternate stimulus patterns. Frequency distributions of the durations of these fixations were used to test predictions from four types of theories of saccadic eye movement control. Contrary to current cognitive theories, cognitive influences appeared to delay saccades rather than trigger them. Two saccade disruption times were identified, suggesting the existence of three distributions of saccades, labeled early, normal and late. The Competition–inhibition theory, an enhanced version of Findlay and Walker's (1999) theory, is proposed to account for eye movement control during reading.
Diane E. Williams; Eyal M. Reingold
In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 476–488, 2001.
Eye movements were monitored during the performance of triple conjunction search tasks. Stimuli varied in color, shape, and orientation. Across trials, the target was either present or absent, and displays consisted of 6, 12, or 24 stimuli. Stimulus discriminability was manipulated for the shape dimension, with half of the participants seeing displays of Es and Fs (low-discriminability [LD] condition) and half seeing displays of Cs and Ts (high-discriminability [HD] condition). Participants in both conditions performed two search tasks. In the single-feature (SF) task, the target stimulus shared one feature with each of the distractors, whereas in the two-feature (TF) task, it shared two features with each distractor. An examination of saccadic endpoints revealed that participants were more likely to fixate on distractor stimuli sharing color (SF task) or color and shape (TF task) with the target. This was a robust finding, being observed across participants, saccades of different amplitudes and sequential position, and following short and long latencies to move. The extent to which participants made use of shape information increased with discriminability.
Uri Hasson; Talma Hendler; Dafna Ben Bashat; Rafael Malach
In: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 744–753, 2001.
Recent neuroimaging studies have described a differential activation pattern associated with specific object images (e.g., face-related and building-related activation) in human occipito-temporal cortex. However, it is as yet unclear to what extent this selectivity is due to differences in the statistics of local object features present in the different object categories, and to what extent it reflects holistic grouping processes operating across the entire object image. To resolve this question it is essential to use images in which identical sets of local features elicit the perception of different object categories. The classic Rubin vase-face illusion provides an excellent experimental set to test this question. In the illusion, the same local contours lead to the perception of different objects (vase or face). Here we employed a modified Rubin vase-face illusion to explore to what extent the activation in face-related regions is attributable to the presence of local face features, or is due to a more holistic grouping process that involves the entire face figure. Biasing cues (gratings and color) were used to control the perceptual state of the observer. We found enhanced activation in face-related regions during the "face profile" perceptual state compared to the "vase" perceptual state. Control images ruled out the involvement of the biasing cues in the effect. Thus, object-selective activation in human face-related regions entails global grouping processes that go beyond the local processing of stimulus features.
Masud Husain; Sabira K. Mannan; Timothy L. Hodgson; Ewa Wojciulik; Jon Driver; Christopher Kennard
In: Brain, vol. 124, no. 5, pp. 941–952, 2001.
Visual neglect of left space following right parietal damage in humans involves a lateral bias in attention, apparent in many search tasks. We hypothesized that parietal neglect may also involve a failure to remember which locations have already been examined during visual search: an impairment in retaining searched locations across saccades. Using a new paradigm, we monitored gaze during search, while simultaneously probing whether observers judged they had found a new target, or judged instead that they were re-fixating a previously examined target. A patient with left neglect following focal right parietal infarction repeatedly re-fixated right locations. Critically, he often failed to remember that these locations had already been searched, treating old targets as new discoveries at an abnormal rate. In comparison, healthy age-matched control subjects rarely re-fixated targets, and mistook old targets as new targets even more rarely. The frequency of such mistakes in the parietal patient, for different conditions, correlated with the severity of his neglect. Control experiments indicated no perceptual localization deficit in non-search tasks. These results suggest a deficit in retaining searched locations across saccades in parietal neglect, in addition to the lateral spatial bias. Moreover, the former deficit exacerbates the latter, such that patients do not realize that the rightward locations favoured by their bias have already been examined during previous fixations and, for this reason, they saccade back to them repeatedly. The combination of the two deficits (a lateral bias plus a deficit in retaining locations already searched) may thus explain the pathological pattern of search that characterizes parietal neglect: why stimuli on the right are re-examined recursively, as if being searched for the first time, and hence why stimuli on the left continue to be ignored even with unlimited viewing time. These proposals accord with recent electrophysiological and functional imaging data, demonstrating posterior parietal involvement in the retention of target locations across saccades.
Jukka Hyönä; Seppo Vainio
Reading morphologically complex clause structures in Finnish. Journal Article
In: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 451–474, 2001.
The study examined how morphologically complex clause constructions were processed during reading Finnish. Readers' eye fixation patterns were recorded when they read two alternative versions of the same linguistic construction, a morphologically complex converb construction and its less complex subclause counterpart. The complexity of the converb construction is apparent in the construction being marked by less perceivable bound morphemes, which make the clause subject and predicate morphologically more complex and more dense in information. Experiment 1 showed that more complex converb constructions produced longer gaze durations than the length- and frequency-matched subclause constructions. Experiment 2 showed that the complexity effect is reversed when the more complex clause form was clearly more common in the language than its less complex counterpart. It is concluded that both structural complexity and structural frequency influence the ease with which linguistic expressions are processed during reading.
Nomdo M. Jansonius; Ton (A) M. Vliet; Frans W. Cornelissen; Jan Willem R. Pott; Aart C. Kooijman
In: Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 26–29, 2001.
An otherwise healthy 15-year-old girl with a congenital nystagmus was evaluated at our department using visual evoked potential recording and magnetic resonance imaging. She appears to have the unique isolated inborn absence of the optic chiasm, described only once before in two unrelated girls. Unlike these previously described cases, our patient does not seem to display a see-saw nystagmus.
In: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 524–531, 2001.
The number of channels that PC tachistoscopes can have has increased recently (Bokhorst, 1995; Myors, 1998); however, neither the quality of display nor speed of image switching has been improved. This article shows the capability of VESA's VBE 3.0 standard (1998) for increasing the number of channels of high-quality images. And the refresh rate can be set to the fastest cathode ray tube (CRT) scanning rate the monitor can tolerate in order to reduce the timing delay of changing display. A PCTSCOPE library was written in C to provide these capabilities, which is compatible with conventional DOS real mode. The PC tachistoscope can have numbers of channels with various resolutions and colors and different refresh rates. For example, 25 images with the resolution of 640 x 480 pixels and 256 colors can be loaded to video memory, and vertical refresh rate can be set to 180 Hz. It takes less than 6 msec to change the display among 25 channels in synchronizing with the start of the video scanning frame. In this library, the number of channels, the resolution of the images, and the speed of changing display all are improved. The multichannel PC tachistoscope with this technique is especially suitable for research requiring high-quality images and rapid successive presentation of stimuli.
Albert V. Berg; J. A. Beintema; Maarten A. Frens
In: Vision Research, vol. 41, no. 25-26, pp. 3467–3486, 2001.
The percept of self-motion through the environment is supported by visual motion signals and eye movement signals. The interaction between these signals by decoupling of the eye movement and the pattern of retinal motion during brief simulated ego-movement on straight or circular trajectories was studied. A new response method enabled subjects to report perceived destination and perceived curvature of their future path simultaneously. Various combinations of simulated gaze rotation in the retinal flow and eye pursuit were investigated. Simulated gaze rotation ranged from consistent and larger than, to opponent and larger than eye pursuit. It was found that the perceived destination shifts non-linearly with the mismatch between simulated gaze rotation and eye pursuit. The non-linearity is also revealed in the perceived tangent heading direction and perceived path curvature, although to different extent in different subjects. For the same retinal flow, eye pursuit that is consistent with the simulated gaze rotation reduces heading error and the perceived path straightens out. In contrast, perceived path and/or heading do not become more curved or more biased in the direction opposite to pursuit when the eye -in-head rotation is opposite to the simulated gaze rotation. These observations point to modulation of the effect of the extra-retinal pursuit signal by the visual evidence for eye rotation. In a second experiment, one presented to a stationary eye the sum of a component of simulated gaze rotation and radial flow. It was found that the bi-circular flow component, that characterizes the change in pattern of flow directions by the gaze rotation, induces a shift of perceived heading without appreciable perceived path curvature. Conversely, the complementary component of simulated gaze rotation (bi-radial flow) evokes a percept of motion on a curved path with a small tangent heading error. It was suggested that bi-circular and bi-radial flow components contribute primarily to percepts of heading and path curvature, respectively.
Femke Meulen; Antje S. Meyer; Willem J. M. Levelt
Eye movements during the production of nouns and pronouns Journal Article
In: Memory and Cognition, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 512–521, 2001.
Earlier research has established that speakers usually fixate the objects they name and that the viewing time for an object depends on the time necessary for object recognition and for the retrieval of its name. In three experiments, speakers produced pronouns and noun phrases to refer to new objects and to objects already known. Speakers looked less frequently and for shorter periods at the objects to be named when they had very recently seen or heard of these objects than when the objects were new. Looking rates were higher and viewing times longer in preparation of noun phrases than in preparation of pronouns. If it is assumed that there is a close relationship between eye gaze and visual attention, these results reveal (1) that speakers allocate less visual attention to given objects than to new ones and (2) that they allocate visual attention both less often and for shorter periods to objects they will refer to by a pronoun than to objects they will name in a full noun phrase. The experiments suggest that linguistic processing benefits, directly or indirectly, from allocation of visual attention to the referent object.
Matthew S. Peterson; Arthur F. Kramer
In: Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 1239–1249, 2001.
Contextual cuing is a memory-based phenomenon in which previously encountered global pattern information in a display can automatically guide attention to the location of a target (Chun & Jiang, 1998), leading to rapid and accurate responses. What is not clear is how contextual cuing works. By monitoring eye movements, we investigated the roles that recognition and guidance play in contextual cuing. Recognition does not appear to occur on every trial and sometimes does not have its effects until later in the search process. When recognition does occur, attention is guided straight to the target rather than in the general direction. In Experiment 2, we investigated the interaction between memory-driven search (contextual cuing) and stimulus-driven attentional capture by abrupt onsets. Contextual cuing was able to override capture by abrupt onsets. In contrast, onsets had almost no effect on the degree of contextual cuing. These data are discussed in terms of the role of top-down and bottom-up factors in the guidance of attention in visual search.
Matthew S. Peterson; Arthur F. Kramer; Ranxiao Frances Wang; David E. Irwin; Jason S. McCarley
Visual search has memory Journal Article
In: Psychological Science, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 287–292, 2001.
By monitoring subjects' eye movements during a visual search task, we examined the possibility that the mechanism responsi- ble for guiding attention during visual search has no memory for which locations have already been examined. Subjects did reexamine some items during their search, but the pattern of revisitations did not fit the predictions of the memoryless search model. In addition, a large pro- portion of the refixations were directed at the target, suggesting that the revisitations were due to subjects' remembering which items had not been adequately identified. We also examined the patterns of fixations and compared them with the predictions of a memoryless search model. Subjects' fixation patterns showed an increasing hazard function, whereas the memoryless model predicts a flat function. Lastly, we found no evidence suggesting that fixations were guided by amnesic co- vert scans that scouted the environment for new items during fixations. Results do not support the claims of the memoryless search model, and instead suggest that visual search does have memory.